Aims and objectives
Radiological imaging is an indispensable element of modern medicine,
which is used in diagnosis and treatment.
Notwithstanding the tremendous benefit that these procedures provide to patients,
there is a well-known health risk associated with the use of ionizing radiation in medicine.
This is of particular importance in children,
who are generally more sensitive to radiation exposure.
The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are one of the main operational tools for optimization of patient...
Methods and materials
The DRLs should be set in terms of the practical dose quantities used to monitor practice.
air kerma - area product and entrance surface air kerma are recommended DRL quantities which are closely similar to Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and it can be easily estimated by dose area product meter in routine practice. Radiation protection survey and quality assurance of X-ray installations The radiation exposure levels during the operation of the radiological equipment were...
Radiographic examinations The entrance surface dose measured for various radiographic imaging procedures are as follows:- Examination Name of Machine No.
of Machines No.
of Examinations ESD mGy Mean ESD mGy 75 th Percentile ESD mGy 50 th Percentile Chest ALLENGERS HF 1 684 1.191 1.465 0.8 GME 1 50 EPSILON 1 71 KONICA 1 15 MEDITRONIX 2 50 Abdomen ALLENGERS HF 1 310 1.34 1.83 1.06 L Spine AP ALLENGERS HF 1 305 9.32 10.15 8.583 MEDITRONIX 1 60 L Spine Lat ALLENGERS HF -do- 305 11.87 12.64 10.817...
Despite the recommendations and the clear need for DRLs for radiological examinations,
only very few DRL data are available and they are only set in a particular radiological examination or in a small region of the county.
The reasons for this are many-fold: patient dose levels vary considerably as a function of age,
size or weight of the patients and therefore,
DRLs for age,
size or weight groups need to be defined; due to the lack of standardization of these groups,
the comparison of DRLs...
Mukesh Jain M.Sc RT Department of Radiological Physics SMS Medical College & Hospitals,
Rajasthan (India) Phone +91 141 2762316 Mobile +91 9414771343 Mail ID - firstname.lastname@example.org
and Homolka P.
Diagnostic reference levels in pediatric radiology in Austria.
20: 1572-1579. 2.Born,
Dose area product of pediatric VCUG with regard to the strongly lowered German diagnostic reference levels.
RöFo : Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete Der Röntgenstrahlen Und Der Nuklearmedizin,
262–7. 3.Chougule A (2004): Quality Assurance survey of X-Ray Installations in...