To review the pathophysiology of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) and discuss its distribution pattern. To illustrate the main imaging findings of NMOSD,
highlighting its main differences from Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder was first reported by Dr.
Eugène Devic in the 19th century,who named it Neuromyelitis Optica. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS),
with a preference for optic nerves and spinal cord. The disease-specific autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) damages astrocyte food processes in areas of the increased blood-brain barrier and plays a central role in the diagnosis.
Bilateral and recurrent posterior optic neuritis...
Findings and procedure details
Pathophysiologicalconsiderations NMOSD is immunopathologically distinct of other demyelinating diseases because it has a target: AQP4.
Aquaporin-4 is a protein molecule,
part of a transmembrane water channel,
that plays a role in water/sodium homeostasis,
and energy homeostasis,
It is expressed in the spinal cord,
and area postrema ,
and in basal cells of the olfactory...
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders represent a severe morbid entity,
with suggestive imaging findings and a defined list of differential diagnosis,
including multiple sclerosis.
Prompt suspicion is of utmost importance and must be recalled by the radiology resident,
in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.
·MRI characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
An international update Ho Jin Kim et al.Neurology®2015;84:1165–1173 (1) ·Differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.
Haeng Jin Lee,
Jacqueline Palace and Kazuo Fujihara.Ther Adv Neurol Disord2017,
10(7) 265–289 .
(2) ·Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: Spectrum of MR Imaging Findings and Their Differential DiagnosisBruna...