Aims and objectives
Acute ischemia is the most common cause of acute renal failure .
The acute kidney injury following the hemorrhagic shock remains a crucial problem: it occurs in approximately 30% of patients admitted in intensive care units and is commonly associated with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)  The diagnosis relies on clinical,
laboratory and instrumental findings.
Ultrasound (US) is the first choice for its non-invasiveness,
thus permitting repeated measurements in vivo ,
Methods and materials
Animal preparation All procedures performed on animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institution and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
Six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-410 g; Harlan Laboratories,
Italy) were used in this study.
The rats were maintained on a 12/12 h light/dark cycle and allowed free access to food and water.
All the procedures were performed under anesthesia,
and all efforts were made to minimize suffering.
Blood pressure and vital parameters MAP decreased from 100±3 mmHg to a stable value of 27±2 mmHg after 30 min of 2.145ml/100g body weight (33% of total blood volume) blood withdrawal. Heart rate remained at a steady value of 130-150 bpm throughout the experiment. The respiratory rate (63-65 acts/minute -apm-) slightly increased at the beginning of the ischemic period,
while after 60 minutes of hypoperfusion,
breaths appeared deep and less frequent (30-35 apm). Analysis of micro US imaging...
The availability of animal models in which reproduce human diseases has become crucial to optimize the diagnostic approach,
to decide the therapeutic strategy predicting the effectiveness and the side effects of drugs or to support the most recent achievements such as the development of radiolabeled compounds for molecular imaging and imaging-based therapy.
The US imaging,
with Color and Power Doppler analysis,
seems to be very useful to confirm the reduction of renal blood flow with a...
MD Department of Radiology University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" Naples/IT e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Francesca Iacobellis,
MD Department of Radiology University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" Naples/IT e-mail: email@example.com Dipartimento di Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale Flaviano Magrassi Via Pansini,5 80131 Napoli tel: +39 0815665200/ +39 081 5665203
Mik EG, Johannes T , Payen D , Ince C (2008) Renal hypoxia and dysoxia after reperfusion of the ischemic kidney.
Mol Med 14:502-16 2.Zhao ZG,
Niu CY (2014) Mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation.
ScientificWorldJournal 2014:720836 3.Boesen EI,
Sullivan JC (2012) Use of ultrasound to assess renal reperfusion and P-selectin expression following unilateral renal ischemia.