With the increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy,
serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs) become more frequent.
Early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic decisions are required for a successful treatment of irAEs.
Radiologist should be aware of the increasing possibility of an immune related Adverse Event to be able to recognize their imaging findings and promptly report it to the clinician.
The recent advances in clinical application of anticancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Due to the distinct mechanism of anti-cancer activity of immunotherapeutic agents some patients on anti-cancer immunotherapy demonstrate response patterns that may not be captured according to the conventional tumor response criteria such as Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and World Health Organisation WHO criteria. To capture...
Findings and procedure details
With the novel immunomodulatory inhibitors there are many encountered immune-related adverse events (irAE) such as enterocolitis,
pneumonitis and endocrinopathies. Many of these entities are associated with radiologic manifestations and radiologist plays an essential role in the diagnosis and follow-up. With early detection,
irAE can be successfully managed (based on the severity of the event) delaying or discontinuing the therapy,
and high dose of corticosteroid.
With the increasing use of ICIs in a growing number of tumor types,
awareness of the clinical and imaging manifestations of irAEs is key for radiologists. Radiologist have to be aware of the possibility of irAEs during ICIs treatment to be able to promptly recognize them as they become increasingly involved in and key contributors of cancer patient care.
1 .Day et al Immune-Related Adverse Events Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors ; December 2016,
Issue 6 pp 571–58 2. Widman et al Imaging Features of Toxicities by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy; Curr Radiol Rep (2017) 5:59 3. Delaunay et al . Immune-checkpoint inhibitors associated with interstitial lung disease in cancer patients ; Eur Respir J 2017; 50: 1700050 4. Braschi-Amifarzan et al. Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Era of Precision Medicine:...