-To review the image findings in thyroid orbitopathy with different techniques. -To evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with emphasis on quantitative methods.
Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO),
also known as Graves' orbitopathy,
is the most common orbital disorder and the most common cause of proptosis in adults. There appears to be a female preponderance; however,
severe cases occur more often in men than in women and most patients with severe cases appearing to be more frequent in those older than 50 years.
(1) The risk and severity of ophthalmopathy may be increased by several other factors including tobacco use. This condition generally...
Findings and procedure details
Imaging techniques -Indications- There are alterations in the imaging tests in 90% of patients with thyroid disease,
even without evident clinical involvement.
CT and MRI are the most commonly used imaging techniques; however,
ultrasound may also be useful.
(3) Although its diagnosis is usually clinical,
imaging studies are indicated in equivocal cases,
in the assessment of inflammatory activity,
predicting DON and planning orbital surgical decompression. Table 1 -Imaging features-...
-Imaging studies are not always necessary in TAO. -Imaging studies such as CT and MRI can be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of TAO because they provide morphological and quantitative analysis methods. -TC is the most frequently used imaging modality in patients with TAO and provides invaluable surgical planning information in patients before decompressive surgery. -MRI is the modality of choice to identify active inflammatory changes and to predict any immunosuppressive treatment...
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The initial clinical characteristics of Graves’ orbitopathy vary with age and sex.
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Imaging studies for diagnosing Graves’ orbitopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy.
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