The most interesting objectives of this review are to know the different entities involved in the development of unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax and to distinguish their main radiological characteristics in order to make a correct differential diagnosis of this syndrome.
Hyperlucent hemithorax syndrome is characterized by a loss of radiological density that may affect the thorax in a focal,
unilateral or bilateral manner. Most of the time these findings can be visualized on a chest x-ray; however,
in some cases they may be subtle,
evidenced only through a CT scan. Many of these entities associated with this syndrome are known,
usually observed in daily practice; however,
there are others that are more infrequent and,
some radiologists may be less...
Findings and procedure details
1- Pulmonary Parenchymal Conditions: Emphysema and Bullous Disease: Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Emphysema and bullae are related to patients who have a smoking habit or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
There are also congenital entities that can manifest as emphysema and bullous disease.
When the distribution of this affectation is asymmetric,
affecting one lobe more than others,
the imaging findings can give a hyperlucent lung image. Pneumatocele: Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 Pneumatoceles can occur after infection,...
There are numerous entities associated with hyperlucent hemithorax syndrome. A correct diagnostic approach allows to differentiate the pathologies that do not have greater clinical relevance of the conditions that require a follow up and a specific management.
Differential diagnosis of unilateral hyperlucent lung in children. American Journal of Roentgenology 2013; 200: 1,
W95-W95. Dillman JR,
Expanding upon the unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax in children. RadioGraphics 2011; 31:723-741. Lillington GA.
In: Lillington GA,ed.
A diagnostic approach to chest diseases.
Differential diagnosis based on...