To appreciate and review the variety of extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis on various imaging modalities. 2.
To recognise and consider sarcoidosis as a differential diagnosis when encountering atypical and unexplained radiological findings.
Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown aetiology characterised by immunologically-mediated formation of non-caseating granulomas affecting multiple organs,
with pulmonary involvement seen in 90% of patients.
Extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis are rare but can mimic a variety of conditions.
Radiological findings are not specific to sarcoidosis and can be challenging to interpret.
Patients are often asymptomatic and sarcoidosis can be easily overlooked as a differential diagnosis,...
Findings and procedure details
Cardiac Incidence Up to 25% on autopsy but clinically apparent in 5% of sarcoid patients [1,2]. Clinical presentation Variable and range from no symptoms to arrhythmia,
congestive cardiac failure,
pericardial effusion or sudden death. Imaging findings Cardiac findings are rarely seen on CT,
with myocardial thinning at the site of disease the only potential sign ; however,
extra-cardiac stigmata of sarcoidosis may be seen in the thorax.
Extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis are rare,
demonstrate a wide variety of radiological findings and can mimic a host of different conditions.
Radiologists need to be familiar with multisystem manifestations of sarcoidosis and play a crucial role in diagnosing this challenging condition.
Utility of Endomyocardial Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis.
1986 Oct;90(4):528–33. Koyama T,
Radiologic Manifestations of Sarcoidosis in Various Organs.
2004 Jan;24(1):87–104. Judson MA.
A proposed solution to the clinical assessment of sarcoidosis: the sarcoidosis three-dimensional assessment instrument (STAI).
2007;68(5):1080–7. Vardhanabhuti V,...