To understand the utility of barium pharyngoesophagram and videofluoroscopic oropharyngeal swallow in the study of dysphagia To review the study protocols in order to learn how to perform the exams. To describe normal anatomy and normal imaging appearances of pharynx,
esophagus and gastric cardia To illustrate typical appearances of various frequent and unfrequent entities causing dysphagia.
The evaluation of dysphagia remains one of the commonest indications for barium studies,
including diagnosis of functional or structural abnormalities. Types of dysphagia: 1.- Oropharyngeal 2.- Esophageal Barium esophagram and VFSS are the best techniques for diagnosis.
They depict the sequence of the fast process of swallowing. VFSS is the current gold standard for diagnosis and management of dysphagia.
Findings and procedure details
TABLE OF CONTENTS NORMAL ANATOMY a.- Anatomy of the oropharyngeal region ( Fig. 1 ) The anatomy of mouth,
and pharynx should be understood to evaluate the physiology of swallowing. Pharynx extends from the nasal cavity to theUES at the crycopharyngeus muscle.
It is composed of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of striated muscle. In addition,
understanding the mechanism of swallowing is essential to understand swallowing disorders. Phases of swallowing . ( Fig. 2 and Fig. 3...
Conventional radiology still plays an important role in the study of dysphagia. The radiologist should be familiar with Barium esophagogram and Videofluoroscopic oropharyngeal swallow study technique,
normal and abnormal findings
Azpeitia Arman 1 (email@example.com) R.
Lorente Ramos 1 C.
Oliva Fonte 1 M.
Gete García 2 T.
Collazo Lorduy 2 Unidad Central de Radiodiagnóstico de la CAM: Hospital Infanta Leonor 1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology : Hospital Infanta Leonor2 Madrid SPAIN
Fluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia: anatomic,
and common etiologic factors.
AJR 2015; 204:49–58 •Gore RM,
Levine MS.Structural abnormalities of the pharynx.
In: Gore RM,
Levine MS.Textbook of gastrointestinal radiology,
NY: Saunders Elsevier,
2008 •Rosenbek JC,
A penetration aspiration scale.
Dysphagia 1996;11:93-98. •Tessa A.
Holman and Danny Nunn...