- Describe REACT – a novel flow–independent non-contrast 3D MRA pulse sequence - Discuss differences between REACT and other non-contrast MRA techniques - Discuss advantages and limitations of REACT - Present clinical utility of REACT through case examples
Contrast enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) was first described for use in abdominal MR angiography by Prince in 1994 1 and is now a valuable non-invasive alternative to conventional angiography for the evaluation of vascular disorders. The use of intravenous gadolinium based contrast agents in CE-MRA is associated with inherent limitations. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis,
characterized by debilitating widespread progressive tissue fibrosis that particularly afflicts patients with severe renal...
Findings and procedure details
What is REACT? REACT is a non-contrast flow-independent,
relaxation-based 3D MR angiography technique that utilizes magnetization preparation pulses and Dixon-based water-fat separation pulse sequences to provide robust MRA images with uniform fat suppression across large fields-of-view 6–8 . In general,
relaxation-based non-contrast MRA techniques are based on differences in relaxation times across arterial blood,
venous blood and adjacent static background tissues.
An angiogram is generated...
We describe the REACT MRA technique in this exhibit,
its advantages and limitations,
as well as presented our initial clinical experience with several case examples.
REACT with its inherent advantages allowing for non-cardiac gating and free-breathing is a potentially useful novel non-contrast 3D MRA technique in the evaluation of various vascular disorders,
providing complementary information to conventional contrast-enhanced MRA.
Our initial experience with REACT MRA demonstrates good...
Dr Tan Eu Jin Senior Resident Department of Radiology,
Changi General Hospital Dr Prasanna Tirukonda Consultant Department of Radiology,
Changi General Hospital Dr Tang Tjun Yip Consultant Department of Surgery,
Changi General Hospital Dr Chong Le Roy Senior Consultant Department of Radiology,
Changi General Hospital
Gadolinium-enhanced MR aortography.
155–164 (1994). 2.
Gadolinium in humans: A family of disorders.
229–233 (2016). 3.
Advanced kidney disease,
gadolinium and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: the perfect storm.
519–525 (2009). 4.
The presence of the gadolinium-based contrast agent depositions in the brain and...