During pregnancy and lactation,
the breast can be affected by a variety of specific disorders,
including benign disorders closely related to physiologic changes,
inflammatory and infectious diseases,
benign and malignant tumors.
Pregnancy and lactation represent unique physiologic states that induce notable changes in the mammary glands in response to hormonal stimulation.
Tumors or disorders affecting the breasts in pregnant or lactating women are usually the same as those observed in...
It is not infrequent for women to present to their physicians with a breast problem during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery.
Changes occurring in the breast during these physiological states make clinical and radiological evaluation of these patients challenging.
Improving understanding of varied breast problems and their imaging appearance on multiple modalities is essential to ensure optimal management of these patients.
In the first and second trimester,
there is proliferation and...
Findings and procedure details
Imaging protocols and challenges Radiological evaluation varies depending upon the age of the woman,
her pregnancy and lactational status.
Subsequent to a clinical history and thorough physical examination,
patients are frequently imaged to determine whether there is an underlying abnormality to account for the patient’s symptoms.
For pregnant and lactating women under the age of 30 years,
ultrasound is the initial imaging test of choice given the lack of radiation exposure.
Substantial physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation make it challenging to evaluate patients presenting with a breast problem.
Most findings in pregnant and lactating patients are benign.
Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for all pregnant women and for lactating women less than 30 years of age.
Mammography is indicated in lactating women over 30 years of age and in pregnant women with suspicious findings on the initial ultrasound or with a biopsy diagnosis of breast...
Breast cancer and pregnancy.
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Early onset lactating adenoma and the role of breast MRI: a case report.
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Porter PL et al.
Breast density as a predictor of...