To review the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis. To summarize diagnostic key points of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis has become an emerging disease existing with the increase of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Disease patterns have changed leading to higher rates of extra pulmonary involvement. However,
diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is often difficult.
Although a positive chest radiograph or positive tuberculin skin test supports the diagnosis,
negative results do not exclude the possibility of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Recognition and understanding of the common and...
Imaging findings OR Procedure details
We review the radiologic manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. 1. Musculoskeletal Tuberculosis Skeletal involvement occurs in approximately 1%–3% of patients with tuberculosis. Tuberculous Spondylitis (fig1) The spine is the most common site of osseous involvement by tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis accounts for approximately 50% of cases of skeletal tuberculosis. The most common location is L1 . Multiple vertebral bodies are typically affected; however,
The clinical and radiologic features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis may mimic those of many diseases. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB must be always suspected in the populations of high-risk. Although the diagnosis can only be confirmed by histological examination (positive culture or histologic analysis of biopsy specimens),
recognition and understanding of the spectrum of imaging features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be very helpful.
Imaging ofExtrapulmonaryTuberculosis1 RadioGraphics 2000; 20:471–488