Aims and objectives
The discovery of X-rays was undoubtedly one of the greatest stimulus for improving the efficiency in the provision of healthcare services.
The ability to view,
inside the human body has greatly facilitated the work of professionals in diagnosis of diseases.
The exclusive focus on image quality (IQ),
without understanding how they are obtained,
affect negatively the efficiency in diagnostic radiology.
The equilibrium between the benefits and the risks are often forgotten.
Methods and materials
For different exposure setting (combination of cooper filter thickness,
kVp and mAs),
air kerma and DAP (dose area product) were measured using an ionization chamber (IC) and a DAP meter,
The additional filter thicknesses used was none,
0.2 and 0.3 mm.
The IC was placed at roughly 1 m from the focus.
The schematic of the experimental setup using for air kerma measurement is shown in Fig. 1.
As is known,
DAP meter was incorporated at the exit of source,
placed just beyond...
With tube current-exposure time product fixed at 20 mAs and tube potential ranging between 81 and 121 kVp,
air kerma varies between 1120.00 and 2270.00 µGy.
For 81 kVp,
20 and 40 mAs,
air kerma were 557.00,
1120.00 and 2210.00 µGy,
respectively (Table 1).
The air kerma is directly dependant on the exposure parameters (mAs and kVp) with high correlation (R2>0.99) and dose reduction is achieved increasing of filter cooper thickness (Table 1 and Fig. 3).
In the absence of...
The results show direct variation between exposure parameters (kVp and mAs) and radiation dose (air kerma) (Table 1 and Fig. 3).
These results support the statement that air kerma is the sum of initial kinetic energy of charged particles (e.g.
electrons) released from air mass.
electrons leave air mass most rapidly (more velocity) because “expulsion power” of beam is higher.
With increase in mAs,
the number of photons with that “expulsion power” increase and therefore...
Zhang and C.
"Optimization of the Radiological Protection of Patients Undergoing Digital Radiography," J Digit Imaging, vol.
 Etard C et al.,
"French Population Exposure to Ionizing Radiation from Diagnostic Medical Procedures in 2007," Pediatric Radiology, vol.
Mettler et al.,
"Radiologic and Nuclear Medicine Studies in the United States and Worldwide: Frequency,